Algeria achievements (1962-2012): The Battle of the water, a challenge met Achievements (1962-2012)


Winning the battle of the water and the specter of water stress in a little geography and climate favorable or hostile, has always been a major challenge that the leaders of modern Algeria tried to raise over half a century of independence.
Covering an area of around 2.4 million km ², Algeria consists, in effect, a huge geographic and climatic diversity from north to south, coastal and sub-coastal, a vast high plains, “highlands” semi-arid and finally a huge set Saharan climate arid and hyper.
Following the example of 17 African countries affected by water deficit, Algeria is in the category of poor countries water scarcity as the threshold set by the United Nations Program for Development (UNDP) and the World Bank to 1,000 cubic meters per capita per year.
superficial side resource availability, Algeria had to dawn of independence of 1500 m3 per capita per year, before falling to 720 in 1990 m3, 680 m3 in 1995 and 630 m3 in 1998. It is currently estimated to be 500 m3 and 430 m3 than in 2020, according to projections by the UN.
Aware of the importance of water as a factor in sustainable development, the Algerian authorities are thus set as a primary objective to improve staffing levels in water through various government programs to mobilize conventional and unconventional depending on the specificity of each region of the country”” continent. Face the challenge of ensuring adequate coverage of the constantly growing needs both domestic, agricultural and industrial lined with alarming scarcity of availability, several political mobilization and management of water resources were put into the works since independence with a more or less intense depending mainly on the availability of funding, dependent on oil prices.
Indeed, the missions of the water sector were divided in the wake of independence between the sectors of work public and agriculture.
example, public works and construction, which formed the Department of Public Works comprised the bulk of the missions through central management department and two external services: Service scientific studies (SES), ancestor of the current ANRH (National Agency for Water Resources) and the Department of General Studies and major hydraulic works (SEGGTH), ancestor of the current ANBT (National Agency for dams and transfers).
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development assured, meanwhile, all responsibilities relating to irrigation and rural water supply.

Two decades after independence, twenty national companies have been created to ensure the support of the management and operation of water supply systems and sanitation across the country. A few years later, in 1987, this organization was further revised by decree with the creation of ten regional public wilayas covering 22 companies and 26 wilaya deliberation by popular assemblies of wilaya.
Starting with April 2001, water management was entrusted to a new public industrial and commercial, the new Algerian waters (ADE), created by executive decree. The new structure integrates all national and regional institutions responsible for the management of water services namely the National Agency for drinking and industrial water and sanitation (AGEP), production facilities and distribution Water in number 9, 26 wilaya managing 258 municipalities (EPDEMIA) and 932 municipal.
ADE is now responsible, among other things, the implementation of the national water policy drinking in all aspects of production management, transfer, processing, storage, supply, distribution and supply of industrial and potable water. She is also responsible for ensuring the project management and project management for its own account or for the account by delegation of the State or local authorities. awareness of the challenges of sustainable management of Water Despite significant efforts by the state to ensure a secure supply of drinking water, particularly in rural areas, it is only fifteen years since what appeared an awareness of the real issues sustainable management of water resources. awareness This was particularly evident in 1999 with the creation of a department exclusively dedicated to the sector. As part of this new strategy, the national water policy revolves around three basic axes namely improving the mobilization of resources, the economy and ensure the protection of the water reform framework water governance.Achievements aside, it was thanks to the support program growth for the period 2005-2009 a significant breakthrough has been achieved in terms of projects and funding. This program had devoted a budget of more than $ 200 million for Among other things, the mobilization of an additional volume of 2.9 million m3 per day, achieving 69 dams and triple water reserves, bringing them to 7.4 billion m3 in 2009 against 2.5 billion m3 in 2004, the treatment and recovery of 600 million m3 of wastewater in addition to the completion of 14 desalination plants.

A five-year later, the new program of public investments for 2010-2014, currently under implementation, has this time, devoted a much larger sum which is approaching $ 20 billion.
This new program, which includes the completion of several books mobilization, water supply and sanitation and irrigation, will ensure a rebalancing between the country and the customs and equity in the allocation of water and services, which will allow Algeria to be closer to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for access to drinking water and sanitation.
Implementation of this system will, in addition, consolidate the gains made ​​in favor of a national water strategy implemented by Algeria during the period 2000-2008 and was on the cover of the water needs for domestic, industrial and agricultural deficits under current and future demand.
distribution management side of the water, the balance has tipped to the concept of delegated management, which has been proven in many developed countries.
The first management contract was signed in 2005, opening the way for other partnerships in the delegated management of water for large cities.
Finally, if the challenge mobilization of water resources has been raised through various public, it is now the battle the water saving and water efficiency that Algeria is expected to deliver in the coming years.

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